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an interval sc 
By reessjersey4 on Jan 10, 2014 07:45 AM
TARSK 14 Things All Researchers Should Know

The story of how Ray and Will Poynter rode the length of the UK in July 2009 and raised money for Oxfam. is a collaborative venture to co create the future of market research. My main employment is as the owner and principal of The Future Place consultancy. The Future Place provides two key services 1) training and services to industry and academic bodies and 2) consultancy services to companies. The details of the companies I work with are a private matter, but if I blog about any company who has paid The Future Place more than expenses recently (approx. two years) I will mention that they are a client. I hold equity in Virtual Surveys and provide consulting services to them from time to time.

I am paid to run courses for a number of trade bodies and over the last few years clients have included ESOMAR, AMSRS, MRS, and MRIA.

The Likert scale is the single most common rating scale in quantitative market research. In its normal form it attempts to record a respondent's level of agreement with statements. For example a statement might be "I am completely satisfied with the service provided by ACME" and the levels might be:

Neither agree nor Womens Cameron Jordan Jersey disagree

In formal terms there is a distinction between a Likert scale and a Likert item. The question in the example above is an example of a Likert item. If several Likert items are used and the results summed across those items, then the result is a Likert scale. the words are used correctly a Likert scale relates to the sum of results across several Likert items but this is almost never done in commercial market research. Many/most people, in commercial market research, say Likert scale when they mean Likert item.

The Likert scale was developed by US educator and psychologist Rensis Likert (1903 1981) in 1932. 1st, 2nd, and 3rd). 1st, 2nd, 3rd as opposed to 1, 2, 3) is based on the fact that there is no reason to believe that the difference between, say, '' and '' is numerically the same as the difference between '' and 'Neither agree nor disagree'. Similarly, if the scale is an interval scale the researcher needs to believe that the difference between '' and '' is exactly twice as big as the difference between '' and ''.

If the data is not interval data, then it is ordinal data. If it is ordinal data then we can report the median, the mode, the percentage picking each level, the percentage picking the top two boxes, the bottom two boxes, the percentage agreeing or disagreeing, etc. However, we cannot and should Kids Cameron Jordan Jersey not calculate a mean or standard deviation.

The www.saintsonlineofficialstore.com/WOMENS-CAMERON-JORDAN-JERSEY.html case for interval data

Some researchers argue that to treat Likert numbers as ordinal loses information. They argue that the symmetry of the language of most Likert questions means that respondents understand they are supposed to respond in an interval scale fashion. To supplement this many researchers layout their questions graphically to help emphasise the interval nature of the data, and include placing numbers next to the text to help reinforce the interval scaling.

If a researcher makes the wild and unjustified decision (IMHO) to treat Likert numbers as an interval scale they are rewarded by being able to use means, standard deviations, and by being able to use the regular forms of techniques such as Factor Analysis and Regression (as opposed to the less familiar non parametric alternatives).
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