Federal Aviation Administration
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Federal Aviation Administration
By gfhjh001 on Nov 28, 2013 05:29 AM
Federal Aviation Administration
Nobody goes up, up, and away until the folks at the FAA say it's OK. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is the government agency responsible for overseeing air transportation in the US. An arm of the US Department of Transportation, the FAA focuses on air transportation safety, including the enforcement of safety standards for aircraft manufacturing, operation, and maintenance. It also manages air traffic in the US through a network of towers, overseeing an average of 50,000 flights per day. It maintains radar systems, communication equipment, and air traffic security systems. The FAA was established by the Federal Aviation Act of 1958, though its origins began with the Air Commerce Act of 1926. Air Traffic Control (ATC) is the FAA's most visible function. The FAA also provides airport construction grants and, through the Federal Aviation Regulations, regulates many aspects of aviation, including airport safety and security; the design, manufacture, and maintenance of aircraft and spare parts; and airline operations, minimum equipment, crew qualifications, training, flight schools, and repair stations.
Air Traffic Control ensures that aircraft are safely separated from each other and from obstacles. Some 400 ATC towers handle aircraft on takeoff and initial climb until cheapuggbootsonlinestore.co.uk about five miles out. Approach control then handles transition to higher altitude, where en route centers handle linehaul flight. As aircraft descend toward their destinations, approach control again handles the transition, and towers handle about the last five miles to landing.
The FAA does not prescribe how aircraft are designed or built. Instead, the FAA requires aircraft to meet certain criteria, such as handling characteristics, stability, and backup systems. Manufacturers submit designs to the FAA. Extensive test flights are then conducted to identify unanticipated problems and demonstrate that the design actually works as intended. If test flights eventually are successful, the FAA issues a type certificate to the manufacturer, who then must develop processes to ensure that production will precisely replicate the approved prototype. Only then, with a cheapuggbootssky.co.uk production certificate, can production beginwith continued FAA oversight as long as the aircraft is manufactured. If problems emerge later, the FAA issues airworthiness directives, which require specific corrections.
Prospective airlines submit detailed manuals for operations, maintenance, and training to show precisely how they will operate safely, and must document how their manuals satisfy every safety regulation. If the manuals are approved, airlines still must conduct "proving flights" before receiving a FAA operating certificate. The FAA also regulates minimum initial qualifications and recurrent training cheapbuyuggbootsuk.co.uk for pilots, flight attendants, maintenance technicians, and dispatchers; requires certain equipment on aircraft; sets weather and equipment standards for different types of landings; and so on. Airline pilots are "rated" (licensed) for each type of aircraft they fly.
The FAA assures continued airline safety by assigning a principal operations inspector, a principal maintenance inspector, and a principal avionics inspector to each air carrier. Within their respective domains, principal inspectors must know everything about their carrier. Bonfires to Beacons. Government Printing Office, 1978. A detailed history of early government involvement in aviation safety.
Rochester, Stuart I. Takeoff At MidCentury. Government Printing Office, 1976. A history of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. Department of Transportation that sets standards for the airworthiness of all civilian aircraft, inspects and licenses them, and regulates civilian and military air traffic through its air traffic control centers. It investigates air accidents and in response may establish new rules, for example, on deicing and airframe inspections. It also promotes the development of a national system of airports. Established as a federal agency in 1958 to regulate air commerce, it combined the Civil Aeronautics Administration and the Airways Modernization Board. The agency became part of the newly formed Transportation Dept. in 1967. commercial space transportation
Regulating air navigation facilities' geometry and flight inspection standards
Encouraging and developing civil aeronautics, including new aviation technologyRegulating civil aviation to promote safety, especially through local offices called Flight Standards District Offices
Developing and operating a system of air traffic control and navigation for both civil and military aircraft
Researching and developing the National Airspace System and civil aeronautics
Developing and carrying out programs to control aircraft noise and other environmental effects of civil aviationIn December 2000, an organization within FAA called the Air Traffic Organization, or ATO, was set up by presidential executive order. This became the Air Navigation Service Provider for the airspace of the United States and for the New York (Atlantic) and Oakland (Pacific) oceanic areas. It is a full member of the Civil Air Navigation Services Organisation.
FAA issues a number of awards to holders of its licenses. Among these are demonstrated proficiencies as an aviation mechanic, a flight instructor, a 50year aviator, or as a safe pilot. The latter, the FAA "Wings Program", provides a series of ten badges for pilots who have undergone several hours of training since their last award. A higher level can be claimed each year. For more information see "FAA Advisory Circular 6191H".
On March 18, 2008, FAA ordered its inspectors to reconfirm that airlines are complying with federal rules after revelations that Southwest Airlines flew dozens of aircraft without certain mandatory inspections. FAA exercises surprise Red Team drills on national airports annually.
Regions and Aeronautical Center Operations
From an operational standpoint, FAA is divided into nine regions plus Headquarters in Washington, DC, the William J. Hughes Technical Center in Atlantic City, and the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center in Oklahoma City. The nine regions are